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Diseño de un programa de capacitación en RAC

“Un traje hecho a la medida” CAPACITACION EN METODOS DE RESOLUCION ALTERNA DE CONFLICTOS EN COSTA RICA «El arte supremo del maestro consiste en despertar el goce de la expresión creativa y del conocimiento» Albert Einstein Alternabilidad de los métodos RAC. En Costa Rica, los métodos RAC son formas de resolver conflictos, diferentes o alternos, al sistema procesal garantizado constitucionalmente mediante el Tercer Poder de la República: el Poder Judicial. Se trata del derecho de todo ciudadano de poder elegir, con base en el principio de la autonomía de la libertad, cualquier otro sistema o método para resolver conflictos alternos […]

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Understanding intercultural communication and conflict resolution in our lives

Research has identified cultural values and emotional intelligence as central determinants of conflict handing styles, little is known about the mechanism through which cultural values impact individuals, preferences for specific conflict handling styles. Intercultural conflict have become a day-to-day life that we witness in our societies. One can say that these have become part of us and sine-qua-non to the people. The more we come across people in our working places, at school, market places, and even in our basic closest relax places, we experienced social conflict and cultural misunderstanding during interaction, and these account to cultural conflict. Since the […]

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  • Allgemein
  • by Alvin Leung Wai Lon
  • 10. February 2019


Mediation for the argument of reclaiming land for housing development in H.K. High price for housing in H.K. is well known in the world. The price is keeping up due to short supplying of housing. Government claims that it is hard to have solution for this problem, due shortage of land supply. But the opposition claims that it is the government not to use the land effectively. Lots of land in New Territory is changed the usage but without proper compensation for such changing. Also, there involves transfer of benefits between government and the consortium. Such as golf club, the […]

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Warsaw Process Towards a Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Middle East

On 13-14 February 2019, there is planned The Ministerial Conference to Promote a Future of Peace and Security in the Middle East. The conference was called jointly by the governments of the U.S.A. and Poland, but it is likely that the U.S.A. is the “senior partner”. The goal of the conference as set out in the invitation is “to take the policy priorities that emerge from the ministerial meeting and to operationalize those policies by having follow-on meetings in various parts of the world.” When the conference was first presented, there was a strong anti-Iran coloring in the U.S. presentation, […]

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Junior Mediators in Italy – A project running in its 5th year

WMO (World Mediation Organization) – Istituto Sommeiller: project on “Junior Mediators” training, an international partnership to introduce teenage students to mediation, life-approach and to its core principles. WMO and Istituto Tecnico Commerciale “Germano Sommeiller” share a common initiative since 2014. Istituto Tecnico Sommeiller is an ancient technical high school in Turin, Italy ( A former Italian Republic president  (Luigi Einaudi) was a member of Istituto Tecnico Sommeiller teachers team, meanwhile another one (Giuseppe Saragat) had been graduated here. The common initiative has the  target to introduce high qualified students to mediation life-approach and to its core principles. Istituto Tecnico Sommeiller […]

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Moscow Format for Afghan Conflict Resolution Continues

Building within the framework of the multi-State efforts for conflict resolution in Afghanistan, more narrowly-focused talks took place in Moscow on 5 and 6 February 2019 among some 50 Afghan participants led on the one hand by former President Hamed Karzai, President from late 2001 to 2014, and Sher Mohammed Abbas Stanikzai, the chief negotiator for the Taliban.  While the original Moscow Format conference was organized by the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation, this follow up was stated as being at the invitation of the Afghan diaspora living in Russia.  In any difficult, prolonged effort as this Moscow Format, […]

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Music in the service of Mediation

For the first time this year, the production company Sky Music Corporation from Serbia organized a music festival with participants from the countries of the Western Balkans, the former Yugoslavia Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, Serbia and the Republic of Northern Macedonia. One of the biggest music events was organized in Belgrade at Stark Arena, which gathers about 20,000 people while television viewers had the opportunity to watch the live event on the small screens across the region. The rating of the ratings of the musical event was a respectable one. At the same time, it was also a […]

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Mahatma Gandhi! Efforts of Mediation in the Middle East

At a time when armed conflicts and strong regional tensions exist in the wider Middle East and when the mediation roe of the United Nations in the armed conflicts of Yemen, Syria and Libya seem at a dead point, on 2 October, the U.N.-designated Day of Nonviolence and the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, it is useful to look at the efforts of Gandhi to mediate in the Jewish-Palestinian tensions which had turned violent in 1936 Mahatma Gandhi was a man of dialogue and compromise. A British-trained lawyer, he always knew the limits of the law and knew when not […]

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On Sea as on Land: New Russia-Ukraine Tensions Require Mediation and Negotiations in Good Faith

30 Nov 2018 – At the 26 November Emergency session of the U.N. Security Council, Rosemary DiCarlo, Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs said: “The United Nations is deeply concerned about this escalation of tensions which is taking place in the broader context of the conflict in eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea.” “This escalation” was an attack by Russian security forces on two Ukrainian warships and their tugboat guide passing through the Kerch Strait into the Sea of Azov on the way to the Ukrainian port city of Mariupol.  A 2003 treaty between Russia and Ukraine designates the Kerch Strait and […]

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Healing the Person and the State: Carl Rogers

Carl Ransom Rogers was a US psychologist and educator and a leading figure of what is often called “the third wave of psychology.”  The first wave was Freud and Jung and their views of psychoanalysis.  The second wave was the behaviorists symbolized by B.F. Skinner and the later behavior-modification specialists.  The third wave, often called “humanist”, has Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, and Carl Rogers as its best known figures.  Unlike Freud and Jung who developed relatively-closed approaches and a set of therapeutic techniques built on their theories, the humanist psychological theory and therapies could change according to the persons being […]

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A Pioneer of Track II Diplomacy: Norman Cousins

World Citizen Norman Cousins was a pioneer of Track II diplomacy. Track I is official government to government diplomacy among instructed representative of the State.  Track II is a non-official effort, usually by a non-governmental organization (NGO) or an academic institution.  Track II talks are discussions held by non-officials of conflicting parties in an attempt to clarify outstanding disputes and to explore the options for resolving them in settings that are less public or less sensitive than those associated with official negotiations. Track II talks can also be defined by what they are not: neither academic conferences nor secret diplomacy […]

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Wolves and mediation

The majority who reads the title of the text is probably wondering what is the connection between the wolves pack and the mediation? For those who know little about this animal, we will outline some interesting facts. Wolves mostly live in a pack that makes up about 20 individuals. They represent a very organized community, which is why they are very old animals today. Pack is led by an Alpha male and an Alpha female who arranges and runs all of them. The task of other males is finding food, hunting and safe keeping the pack. The newborn wolf keeps the […]

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United Nations Mission in Haiti: Failure or Success

The political situation in Haiti remains unstable since after the Haitian Army Force overthrew the elected President, Jean Bertrand Aristide, on 29 September 1991. Since then, the International Community has intervened in different peacekeeping missions in this Caribbean Island. On 31 July 1994, United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 authorized the United States to lead a multinational force to restore Aristide in power. On 2001, he was reelected and he will be resigned three years after due to the uprising of some sectors of the population. Then, the Security Council voted the resolution 1542 that allowing, since 1 June 2004, […]

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Farm Debt Mediation for India

Abstract Farm Debt Mediation is a hope for Indian farmers in distress, whereas the jargon of Farm Debt Waiver is the prevalent custom. Farm Debt write–off in the banking and finance segment are so common, and the terminology frequently find place in the election manifestos. This article is exploring the possibility of Farm Debt Mediation for India. Introduction Farm Debt Mediation enables the Farmers to mediate their disputes with creditors, and the mediation process provides the farmers an opportunity to explain what is or has wedged on their capacity to repay debts and to seek mediation facilities for an outcome […]

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Mediation and the theory of games

When we think of the so-called Game Theory, we must bear in mind that its main objective is to study the behavior that is supposed to be rational in situations of play, where there are interactions between two or more people whom we call players. In these, the results are conditioned to the actions carried out by the agents at each moment or in turn. If we take this to the theory of conflict, we find ourselves in the utility of the application of the rules of the game, when making decisions in the negotiation of the exit to a […]

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  • Politics
  • by Louisa Garbo
  • 18. January 2019

Conflict Resolution in Land Use Planning

Land use planning in the public agencies practice dispute resolution through negotiation, facilitation and consensus building methods on a regular basis. It is when the nature and scale of the development proposal is perceived to have adverse impacts on the community, be it social, environmental or economical, that the traditional public input and negotiation processes seem to fail to bring the stakeholders and the community together. Unfortunately, alternative dispute resolution such as mediation has not been utilized by most planning agencies. One argument is that land use planning involves a very complex process governed by many layers of legislations, local […]

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Excerpt of Communication and Conflict

This article is an excerpt of a paper I wrote a few years ago in which I explored a case study on the wave of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver in the 1990s and analyzed the role of communication in the case study.  Hong Kong was handed over to Great Britain on August 29, 1842 during the First Opium War (1839-1942) under the Treaty of Nanking, which subsequently ended the war between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China;1the Treaty was to expire in 1997. With the political uncertainties as Hong Kong was heading […]

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Gender equality as an important field of mediation

We live in a time of promotion and active use of social norms that ensure gender equality as well as respect of human rights. At the international level, gender equality issues as well as human rights are regulated by Universal Declaration of Human Rights . International Law and Gender Equality Non – Discrimination Legislation, Requirements and Good Practices is just one of the documents regulating the issues that will be discussed at the international level. International institutions such as the United Nations are examples of good practices of equal representation of both sexes in senior management positions as well as equal […]

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The role of the mediator

Mediation is one of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). It is voluntary and non-binding on the parties in dispute. The mediator targets to take an active role in order to facilitate a settlement that includes all participants necessities. From what I learned, there are three elements that play a significant role people’s acceptance towards mediation, namely: dignity and trust. The mediator carries out a number of different functions during the process, for example: establishing a framework for cooperative decision making, promoting constructive communication, providing appropriate evaluations, empowering the parties, and ensuring a minimum level of process and outcome fairness (Boulle and Kelly, […]

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Power based resolution in Mediation

There are, of course, many responses to conflict. Two common alternatives to the processes outlined in this note are avoidance, a refusal to acknowledge or engage in the problem; and unilateral decision-making, in which one of the disputants requests (or allows) a third party to independently decide on an outcome to the dispute without a formal process. In practice, parties in conflict will frequently draw from components of all three procedures— some discussion of interests, some reliance on rights, and some attempts to use power. The ways people process or resolve disputes or attempt to make decisions are, consensual, adjudicative […]

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