Conflict Reports

Welcome to the WMO CONFLICT REPORT database. This is a selective preview of articles that are available in the membership section. Do not hesitate to obtain complete access …

THE KENYA 2008 – 2009 POST-ELECTION CONFLICT – Fraciah Njeri Ngamau

This paper explicates the 2007-2008 post-election violent conflict in Kenya and its consequences and effects on society and region. This paper also documents on the mediation process applied to solving the mentioned conflict. Kenya suffered its worst seen and recorded electoral violence as an aftermath of the disputed Presidential election of 27th December 2007, which was the fourth since the country’s return to multiparty politics in 1992. In just a matter of weeks, Kenya was transformed from one of Africa’s most stable democracies to a place of total chaos. The said elections contributed to the belief by many like Collier and Rohner that elections in African countries such as Kenya have tended to significantly increase proneness to civil war and various other manifestations of violence. CONTINUE READING …

THE COMPLEXITY OF CONFLICTS IN BANGLADESH – M. S. Siddiqui

Conflict is the natural disagreement resulting from individuals, groups and organizations and states. Conflict can be external or internal to the country. Conflict originates past rivalries and personality differences. Conflict is held at several plateaus such as individuals, groups or even nations (Islam et al, 2014). Individuals are in conflicts for many reasons like property, family conflict or any other social issues may cause conflict between individuals. The second category is people to people conflict. Ethnic and religious violence stand out in people to people conflict (Varshney 2002). Examples of this include conflicts between ethnic and social groups, localized land conflicts, religious riots, homicides, domestic violence, common violence, or other crimes. CONTINUE READING …

VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: 1999 – 2015 –  Bruce L. Cook, Ph.D.

In the 1900’s, readers in any country witnessed the arrival of electronic communication. Programs on radio began to compete with newspaper reports and then television came along, resulting in an even greater mix of choices. Throughout these formative years the main concept was to broadcast news and entertainment into homes from a central place. News editors served as gatekeepers, automatically limiting news content. Their news stories were received in homes and, as long as the number of networks was limited, viewers, readers and listeners could discuss the shows with friends and family the next day. The big question was – who was allowed to originate news content? No question, the average person could never hope to be “on the show”. In fact, it was clear that only the media managers, producers, and directors could decide. If they said your news wasn’t important, it wasn’t important! While many people had a desire to be “on the air” to share their ideas, this was impossible for almost everyone. Access for the average person was denied. CONTINUE READING …

MEDIATION – BUSINESS TOOL TO PREVENT WORKPLACE HARASSMENT – Elena Gallego Baixauli

Any dispute Arising Within Organizations are a source of great human and economic losses, Which May even lead to the closure of many companies. This study Aimed to design a training program in conflict resolution and mediation business. The design used for the realization of the research was a pretest-intervention-posttest with a Control group. The sample included 104 subjects, 40 experimental and 48 control. Two instruments to measure change Were applied before and after training. The intervention program consisted of two sessions of five hours. The parametric test results Suggested to positive impact of the intervention, reducing ambiguity, role conflict and mobbing in business, becoming a tool mediation in bullying prevention, to Consider in the design of protocols for prevention of mobbing. CONTINUE READING …

THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA – Roberto Miguel Rodriguez

This paper discusses the border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia, the decision of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the difficulties that both parties are having implementing the decision. This conflict may qualify as an intractable conflict. Conflict “is a difference within a person, or between two or more people, that touches them in a significant way” (LeBaron and Pillay, 2006, p. 12). Conflict hurts the most “when their interdependence is so essential that they cannot do away with it despite the difficulties of remaining interdependent, such as for friends or lovers” (LeBaron & Pillay, 2006, p. 88). Such is the case between Ethiopia and Eritrea. CONTINUE READING …

CREATING A FORTRESS FOR PROGENIES OF ARMED CONFLICT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE – U F Morgan

A number of crimes are perpetrated under the cover of conflict and chaos. One of the most horrible is sexual violence. This paper examines the predicament of children born as a result of rape, forced maternity and forced marriages during armed conflict. These children‟s plights include emotional, social and economic difficulties. I will also consider the predicament of war children across the globe and make some suggestions to enable the society create a safe place for these victims, heal their wounds and curb the reoccurrence of such violence and crimes in future. Armed conflicts do not just occur and come to an end without consequences. There are victims which the society cannot deny or neglect. The aim of this work is to call attention to children whose existence is the direct result of sexual violence during armed conflict and promote peaceful settlement of conflicts through mediation, negotiation and diplomacy. CONTINUE READING …

THE LEAKY BOTTOM LINE: THE HIDDEN COST OF HUMAN CONFLICT IN THE USA WORKPLACE AND THE LOW-COST WAY TO CURE IT – Yvette Durazo

Human conflict happens in any situation and in any part of the world in where facts, desires or fears push or pull participants against each other or in divergent directions. Conflict can be unpredictable and is inherently part of what happens when you have multiple people interacting at any given time, especially in the workplace. Human relations in the workplace are a major part of what makes a business work. Workplace conflict can happen unbeknownst to the boss and upper management, and it can run its course until it indirectly affects a system in the business. Sometimes, if lucky, indicators of issues among personnel can be experienced at the earliest stage of the situation, showing up as conflict that can get out of control, be unbearable to parties involved, and can no longer be ignored. This is when organizations have an opportunity to identify what to do when the damage to the organization is still preventable. Let’s clarify that not all conflict is bad; some conflict can actually be a source of energy that fosters creative and resourceful problem solving. Unmanaged conflict, however, can have detrimental effects on the overall net earnings of an organization. CONTINUE READING …

MEDIATING BUSINESS DISPUTES – M S Siddiqui

Given the complex web that binds businesses across various stakeholders in the supply and manufacturing chain, disagreements and disputes often impede smooth functioning. Businesses try to maintain the inter-relationship despite disagreements by way of addressing them through various standard practices. One such mechanism to resolve disagreements and disputes amicably is Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). The mediation procedure of ADR is an appropriate method of resolving disputes. The main issue of mediation is determining damages. All parties in mediation agree to resolve the issue with mutually agreed compensation for damages without any legal proceedings in the court of law. Bangladesh has no law for mediation although many developed and developing countries have such laws. We have the long tradition of Shalish for many types of disputes in rural societies. It has social and inner community methods of enforceability without any legal bindings. CONTINUE READING …

THE PROBLEM OF VIOLENCE IN FAVELAS OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL – Marina Khamitsevich

I am a Russian living in Brazil. These are basically two different worlds in many aspects and it took me quite a while to get used to them. What still strikes me after 1,5 years living in Rio de Janeiro (as well as any other visitor of Marvelous City) is the truly enormous gap between reach and poor and the level of violence perturbing the city despite numerous measures being taken to solve the problem. Income gap and the level of violence are indeed interconnected and the problem is complex. In this article, I will dwell upon a notorious problem of violence in favelas of Rio de Janeiro: its causes, taken measures and results. Although there were many violent episodes in Brazilian history, on the whole, it has been “remarkably peaceful”1. While avoiding open conflict, Brazilian society has gone through transitions that in general have moved in the direction of modernization and democracy. CONTINUE READING …

MEDIATION AND GANGS: IS THIS POSSIBLE? A BRIEF REPORT THAT LOOKS AT THIS POSSIBILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO – Hedy Tenia

This report looks at existing discussions and interventions to address the issue of gangs within the country of Trinidad and Tobago. The hope is that your feedback on the use of mediation, if possible in the gang context, can throw light on the best approach for its implementation and use. Trinidad and Tobago is a twin island independent state, having attained its independence from Great Britain in 1962 and became a Republic in 1974. The country has a history of slavery and indentureship and is multi-religious, multi- cultural and multi- ethnic and has a population of over 1.3m personsi living within a 1,981square mile radius. Within the context of Trinidad and Tobago, programs have been developed to address social ills within the society and offer redress. However, our country has seen a steady increase in violent activity with results that have a profound impact upon some of the most vulnerable in our society. Peace is seen, depending on the community, as nebulous and this has resulted in some communities being declared ‘hot spots.’ CONTINUE READING …

PREVENCIÓN DE LA VIOLENCIA EN LA ESCUELA: UNA PROPUESTA DE INTERVENCIÓN PREVENTION OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A PROPOSAL FOR INTERVENTION – Elena Baixauli Gallego

El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo diseñar un programa de prevención de la violencia en las aulas de secundaria. La finalidad del programa fue evaluar la relación existente entre el entrenamiento recibido por parte de los niños de un colegio concertado en Manises, Valencia, en habilidades de resolución de conflictos y mediación y la disminución de la violencia en el aula. La muestra incluía 24 sujetos de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 14 años (M=17.25, DT=22,53). El 58,3% eran mujeres y 41,7% hombres. Los contenidos trabajados fueron el conflicto, técnicas de escucha activa, dilemas morales y diálogos apreciativos. Los resultados sugirieron un impacto positivo de la intervención, los niños incrementaron significativamente sus habilidades comunicacionales y relacionales, se disminuyó la agresividad en el aula. CONTINUE READING …

SHALISH (MEDIATION) FOR RURAL BANGLADESH – M S Siddiqui

The concept of legal pluralism refers to a situation of coexistence of several legal systems. It means the simultaneous existence of a formal legal system of statutory laws with customary principles or informal rules. Different laws deal with different matters, for example, formal laws are meant to regulate commercial, criminal or constitutional aspects of human life, while civil and personal matters are governed by the local customary laws or religious laws. The religious personal laws of Bangladesh’s various religious communities govern matters within the private sphere, including marriage, divorce, custody, inheritance and so on. Muslim marriage and sharing of paternal properties are governed by the Islamic law but the Marriage Registration act 1961 imposes some optional conditions. There was no law on marriage of Hindu community until 2012. CONTINUE READING …

CYPRUS ISSUE: THE UN ROLE IN MEDIATION AND CONFLICT NEGOTIATION – Anatolii Mulaska

This conflict report “Cyprus Issue: the UN Role in Mediation and Conflict Negotiation” has become of a vital importance for the moment for many reasons. Particularly, in April 2016, the Telegraph featured a cover story on Cyprus Problem entitled “Cyprus may Be Small, but its Reunification could Have Huge Global Ramifications”1. Thus, resolving Cyprus Dispute under the auspices of the UN could be seen as a key step to lessening the historic enmity between Turks and Greeks and, therefore, enhancing co-ordination among the countries of the region which, in turn, would help to extend democracy, stability and free market to a zone of current turmoil in general. From the other hand, resolving Cyprus Problem as soon as possible could be a clear test to see whether the current bodies of the UN can work effectively to mediate and, to the end, to solve the global ethnic conflicts and disputes across the world. CONTINUE READING …

MOLDOVA – TRANSNISTRIA – Marina Khamitsevich

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, a number of conflicts arose in areas of some of the post-Soviet states, usually where the new international borders did not match the ethnic affiliations of local populations. These conflicts are often referred to as Frozen conflicts. The term is used for situations in which there is no active armed conflict but at the same time no peace treaty or other political agreement that would satisfy the conflicting parties. Therefore, the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability. At the moment there are several conflict zones on the post-Soviet territory. This report dwells upon Transnistria (self-proclaimed Pridnestrian Moldovan Republic not recognized by international community). This topic gained particular attention in the context of Russia-Ukraine confrontation. The report attempts to reveal causes and different perspectives of conflicting parties. CONTINUE READING …

SPORT DIPLOMACY AND MEDIATION – Marina Khamitsevich

Throughout the course we have seen many examples of using alternative dispute resolution mechanisms (negotiations, arbitration, mediation) to successfully resolve local conflicts and reconcile business adversaries. Let’s now look at other areas where ADR could be of significant help. In the last several years I was lucky to live in the Olympic cities of Sochi and Rio de Janeiro and observe them transforming while preparing for the Games. At the same time, regardless of the residence, all sport fans have been witnessing that not only the Olympic capitals were changing but the whole world of sport. Every new Olympiad raises new questions, challenges and conflicts. There were so many grievances lately that all spectators now seem to be aware of CAS (Court of Arbitration for Sport) procedures! And emotions are high not only around Olympic movement. Increasingly there is a valuable and commercial industry built around sports activities, therefore disputed issues that arise can be varied and difficult. Player’s contracts, sponsorship deals, construction work, broadcasting and many other aspects of sport may cause disputes with are legal, commercial and often personal issues at stake. CONTINUE READING …

THE NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT, NOW UNFREEZING? – Marina Khamitsevich

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, a number of conflicts arose in areas of some of the post-Soviet states, usually where the new international borders did not match the ethnic affiliations of local populations. These conflicts are often referred to as Frozen conflicts. The term is used for situations in which there is no active armed conflict but at the same time no peace treaty or other political agreement that would satisfy the conflicting parties. Therefore, the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability. This reports dwells upon a deep-rooted and lasting conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, which is now in serious risk of “unfreezing” following the recent on-going violations of cease-fire agreement thus putting the South Caucasus region in situation of dangerous instability. CONTINUE READING …

RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION AGENDA IN BRAZIL – Marina Khamitsevich

Both topics of restorative justice and reconciliation are relevant to Brazil. Like many other Latin American countries, Brazil has a period of military rule, having left its complicated legacy of divided society. The country attempted to overcome the consequences of political violence by implementing truth and reconciliation commission in 2011 – this measure took much longer to be implemented than in most other neighbor countries. First part of this report explores on the reasons of that belated action and complications it implied. The second part of the report analyzes restorative practices implemented in Brazil. The country is known for its creative celebration of life. Unfortunately, it is also notorious for its people wealth imbalances and urban violence. In the city of Rio de Janeiro the most luxurious condominiums are located in the close neighborhood with favelas (shantytowns) having no basic facilities. World-famous Ipanema and Copacabana beaches are regularly disturbed by arrastões – robbing raids committed by groups of poor presumably favela residents, most of whom are minors. Obviously, the two above-mentioned facts are deep-rooted and interrelated. The society seeks to protect itself; one of the measures introduced in 2015 was to allow city police to convey the groups of black minors from the buses with beach side destination directly to police stations for questioning and verification of identity. CONTINUE READING …

KASHMIR CONFLICT: THE ROLE OF MEDIATION AND INTERNATIONAL LAW IN DISPUTE RESOLUTION – Dushyant Kishan Kaul

One of the focal points of mediation in India is in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The primary source of tension stems from the disagreement between India and Pakistan regarding which country the state truly belongs to. A history of wars, diplomatic strains at various points of time and differing agendas of the political leadership and the military between the two have hindered all efforts at rapprochement. Thus, this paper aims to delve into the past to understand how this issue was to be mediated and how the efforts of the concerned stakeholders have not been successful. The status of minority communities including Kashmiri Pandits is virtually extinct in the state and they have been forced to take refuge in other parts of the country. This offers a glaring example of the repercussions of this conflict on the demographic standing within the state itself. The ethnic complexities coupled with the inter-state tensions have resulted in a rather tense atmosphere in the region. Moreover, by laying down the standpoints of both these countries and the role of the United Nations (herein, referred to as the UN) in trying to resolve the conflict, this paper aims to obtain an unbiased and complete understanding of why mediation proceedings have failed to be fruitful. The legal mechanisms of domestic and international laws previously employed to decide the terms and conditions for a solution acceptable to India and Pakistan are looked at. CONTINUE READING …