Analytical conflict report on the ‘Israel-Palestinian peace plan’ a) Basic facts: Back ground is the question who is entitled to settle in the Cis-Jordan region. After being long time under the ruling of Eastern Rome, later Byzantine and then Ottoman Empire, the region is rich in cultural background. However, a lot of different tribes were settling there including Jewish and Arabic ones since several hundred years. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire, at the end of WWI, the region was split of between the two protecting powers France, who got the northern area around Beirut, today Lebanon, and British Empire was governing the southern part of the east Mediterranean coast. During that time, the first Jewish settlers came back to the region and later, after WWII, founded their own state, called Israel, first recognized by the US government in 1948. b) Status quo: Historically, the Jewish settlers claiming to have the right to live in this region since they did so since coming from Egypt and other countries and powers in the region where they were kept for generations to work and live there. However, also the Arabic, and other, tribes, claiming that the region would be there historical settling area and they were constantly living there for the past centuries. Since the foundation of Israel, it had the tendency to enlarge its territory which was successful during the six days war in the 1960s. Since then some of the Arabic settlers were resettled from some of their previous settlements to the West Bank, a strip along the coast towards Egypt and the Jordan valley, north and south of Jerusalem. While both states do not recognize each other, the UN is about to formally support the two states solution since the 1970s. East Jerusalem is the supposed to be capital of the Palestine state, West Jerusalem should become the capital from Israel. The latter was already declared to be accepted by the US government under President Trump in 2017. Later in 2019, they also stated that the Jewish settlements in the West Bank were consistent with international law. It is, however still questioned by the Arabic league as well as the EU and other nations. In January 2020, the US government did propose, together with Israel, the ‘Israel-Palestinian peace plan’. Which entails the annexation of 30% of the West Bank by Israel and put other conditions to the Palestine state, such as full recognition of Israel and to accept limited sovereignty. On the other side, Israel would accept the recognition of a State of Palestine, while controlling its foreign and security policy as well as full air space and other elements. In any case, whole Jerusalem would become the capital of the State of Israel and the State of Palestine would be entitled to found their own capital on the outskirts of East Jerusalem after a period of four years. Finally, Israel would be entitled to control the whole Jordan valley, which they consider as being strategically important for them. On the other hand, Palestine considers the valley, and its access to the river Jordan, to be necessary to irrigate their 80,000 hectares of agricultural land in the West Bank. c) Unanswered questions - Who is gaining what out of the plan? - Why is Hamas, ruling West Bank, rejecting it? - What is the interest of US government or its president in this conflict? - Which other regional stakeholder is involved in the matter? - What is the perspective of the other four members of UN Security Council? - Why are their reactions limited so far? - Which interest of one or more of them would be in actually keeping the conflict ongoing? - How it come that the former protecting powers France and UK are not more active in the resolution of the conflict? - Why are other big players on global level, especially on economic level, such as Germany and Japan, not involved in the resolution of the conflict? - What is the position and the interest of the EU in the region? - Why it seems that the reaction of the Arabic league is different then in the past, even though rejecting the plan as such? - How it comes that even some Arabic states, such as Oman, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates were thanked by the US president for their assistance in the peace process? - Why is the reaction of other local powers, such as Turkey, very limited? - Why are the actions of Egypt not as strong as in the past? - Which geopolitical situation is currently influencing, or not, or even in favour of the plan? - Why is the Israel government now proposing the plan?