Category: Peace and War

Healing the Person and the State: Carl Rogers

Carl Ransom Rogers was a US psychologist and educator and a leading figure of what is often called “the third wave of psychology.”  The first wave was Freud and Jung and their views of psychoanalysis.  The second wave was the behaviorists symbolized by B.F. Skinner and the later behavior-modification specialists.  The third wave, often called “humanist”, has Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, and Carl Rogers as its best known figures.  Unlike Freud and Jung who developed relatively-closed approaches and a set of therapeutic techniques built on their theories, the humanist psychological theory and therapies could change according to the persons being […]

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A Pioneer of Track II Diplomacy: Norman Cousins

World Citizen Norman Cousins was a pioneer of Track II diplomacy. Track I is official government to government diplomacy among instructed representative of the State.  Track II is a non-official effort, usually by a non-governmental organization (NGO) or an academic institution.  Track II talks are discussions held by non-officials of conflicting parties in an attempt to clarify outstanding disputes and to explore the options for resolving them in settings that are less public or less sensitive than those associated with official negotiations. Track II talks can also be defined by what they are not: neither academic conferences nor secret diplomacy […]

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Impediments to conflict resolution in Syria

In the existing realist world today, it is implicitly understood that conflicts, wherever they break out, should at the outset be addressed through domestic state apparatus through political reform, settlements, elections among other methods. When domestic mechanisms fall short, such a scenario calls for action on part of the international community to assist conflicting parties find peaceful means of coming about to an agreement. There are, however, barriers to conflict resolution owing to the forces of motion and relationships between nations and non-state actors. This article explores the broad categories of barriers to conflict resolution, followed by an attempt to […]

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Healing the Wounds: Post-Conflict Mediation in Sudan

Sudan has all the characteristics of an intractable conflict. The roots of the problem run deep into the Sudanese society, heavily influenced by cultural factors, such as religion, ethnicity, ideology, and economics. In this paper, I will describe the major characteristics of this conflict, and use it as a base to suggest and discuss a few recommendations about how an international neutral could go about building bridges among the parties in dispute, especially at the community level. Specifically, I will discuss and comment on Arai’s concept of dialoguing with genuine curiosity, the starting points discussed by LeBaron and Pillay, the […]

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  • Peace and War
  • by Roberto Rodriguez
  • 11. September 2018
  • 1 Comment

Peace Operations in West Africa: ECOWAS Successes and Failures in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau

The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate the ECOWAS peacekeeping efforts in West Africa, specifically its successes and failures in Liberia, Sierrra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea and Guinea Bissau, using a simplified version of the evaluative framework created by Diehl and Druckman, to accommodate for the type of data that is available for these operations. The paper demonstrates that ECOWAS failed to restore peace and security in all its peacekeeping operations and that there is a lot that the sub-regional organization has to learn to deal effectively with its own conflicts. Nigeria provided most of the financial […]

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  • Peace and War
  • by Roberto Rodriguez
  • 11. September 2018
  • 2 Comments

UNAMID and MONUSCO, the Two Most Expensive UN Peacekeeping Operations: How Close Are They to Achieve Their Objectives?

UNAMID and MONUSCO (previously MONUC) have been the two most expensive peacekeeping operations in all UN history. Started in 2007 and 1999 respectively, the mandate of both operations have been repeatedly extended and expanded, but they are still far from achieving all of their objectives. Although the environment in each operation is extremely complex, these operations have manifested weaknesses in the implementation of their respective mandates, including lack of coordination, equipment and training, discipline, priorities and support by the host governments. This paper analyzes in some detail the two most complex UN peacekeeping operations ever launched and investigates the reasons […]

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Facing the term ‘Peace’

Due to the latest development of peace and conflict awareness and sensibility throughout the globe, our initial statement ‚… to promote a culture of peace …‘ might be re-arranged or newly specified. The first WMO Conflict Insight Report and the corresponding discussion helped us to finalize this step. The core problem that was detected in this content is the term ‘peace’ itself that obviously grants too many options for interpretations and generally assumes that all of us believe in the same conception. Advertisement: WMO MINDFUL MEDIATION TRAINING – Learn more today … Nowadays, that we form a more global society […]

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