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Category: Peace and War

Women as Peacemakers

Seeing with eyes that are gender aware, women tend to make connections between the oppression that is the ostensible cause of conflict (ethnic or national oppression) in the light of another cross-cutting one: that of gender regime.  Feminist work tends to represent war as a continuum of violence from the bedroom to the battlefield, traversing our bodies and our sense of self.  We glimpse this more readily because as women we have seen that ‘the home’ itself is not the haven it is cracked up to be.  Why, if it is a refuge, do so many women have to escape […]

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Women in Peace & Security: Women of faith in peacebuilding

Abstract Women have a dual experience in their roles as advocates for peace, particularly women of faith. The irony is that while they are more immersed in the community and thus have the power to exert more influence, they are invisible and excluded from most peace processes. The realm of religion, like most other fields, have been traditionally lead by men. In this article, we examine the role of women in religious peacebuilding, as well as the role of women faith leaders in peacebuilding. We will take a closer examination of the role that women play in alternative dispute resolution […]

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The Warsaw Process: Slow Start, Clear Focus

“This is a new era for the future and for prosperity for all the nations” Yusuf bin Alawi, Foreign Minister of Oman, said optimistically in Warsaw at the 13-14 February 2019 Ministerial Conference to Promote a Future of Peace and Security in the Middle East. The sunrise of the new era may be showing its first rays on the horizon but is certainly not yet visible to all. At the same time that bin Alawi was speaking, the Presidents of Russia, Turkey and Iran were meeting in Sochi on the Black Sea to discuss the future of Syria. They were […]

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Warsaw Process Towards a Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Middle East

On 13-14 February 2019, there is planned The Ministerial Conference to Promote a Future of Peace and Security in the Middle East. The conference was called jointly by the governments of the U.S.A. and Poland, but it is likely that the U.S.A. is the “senior partner”. The goal of the conference as set out in the invitation is “to take the policy priorities that emerge from the ministerial meeting and to operationalize those policies by having follow-on meetings in various parts of the world.” When the conference was first presented, there was a strong anti-Iran coloring in the U.S. presentation, […]

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Moscow Format for Afghan Conflict Resolution Continues

Building within the framework of the multi-State efforts for conflict resolution in Afghanistan, more narrowly-focused talks took place in Moscow on 5 and 6 February 2019 among some 50 Afghan participants led on the one hand by former President Hamed Karzai, President from late 2001 to 2014, and Sher Mohammed Abbas Stanikzai, the chief negotiator for the Taliban.  While the original Moscow Format conference was organized by the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation, this follow up was stated as being at the invitation of the Afghan diaspora living in Russia.  In any difficult, prolonged effort as this Moscow Format, […]

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Mahatma Gandhi! Efforts of Mediation in the Middle East

At a time when armed conflicts and strong regional tensions exist in the wider Middle East and when the mediation roe of the United Nations in the armed conflicts of Yemen, Syria and Libya seem at a dead point, on 2 October, the U.N.-designated Day of Nonviolence and the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, it is useful to look at the efforts of Gandhi to mediate in the Jewish-Palestinian tensions which had turned violent in 1936 Mahatma Gandhi was a man of dialogue and compromise. A British-trained lawyer, he always knew the limits of the law and knew when not […]

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On Sea as on Land: New Russia-Ukraine Tensions Require Mediation and Negotiations in Good Faith

30 Nov 2018 – At the 26 November Emergency session of the U.N. Security Council, Rosemary DiCarlo, Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs said: “The United Nations is deeply concerned about this escalation of tensions which is taking place in the broader context of the conflict in eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea.” “This escalation” was an attack by Russian security forces on two Ukrainian warships and their tugboat guide passing through the Kerch Strait into the Sea of Azov on the way to the Ukrainian port city of Mariupol.  A 2003 treaty between Russia and Ukraine designates the Kerch Strait and […]

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Healing the Person and the State: Carl Rogers

Carl Ransom Rogers was a US psychologist and educator and a leading figure of what is often called “the third wave of psychology.”  The first wave was Freud and Jung and their views of psychoanalysis.  The second wave was the behaviorists symbolized by B.F. Skinner and the later behavior-modification specialists.  The third wave, often called “humanist”, has Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, and Carl Rogers as its best known figures.  Unlike Freud and Jung who developed relatively-closed approaches and a set of therapeutic techniques built on their theories, the humanist psychological theory and therapies could change according to the persons being […]

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A Pioneer of Track II Diplomacy: Norman Cousins

World Citizen Norman Cousins was a pioneer of Track II diplomacy. Track I is official government to government diplomacy among instructed representative of the State.  Track II is a non-official effort, usually by a non-governmental organization (NGO) or an academic institution.  Track II talks are discussions held by non-officials of conflicting parties in an attempt to clarify outstanding disputes and to explore the options for resolving them in settings that are less public or less sensitive than those associated with official negotiations. Track II talks can also be defined by what they are not: neither academic conferences nor secret diplomacy […]

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How the case of the journalist Barbara became a social phenomenon

Serbia is a country on the European continent, which is widely known for its wars, embargo,bombardment, reign of Slobodan Milosevic with numerous non-violent protests that were organized by the organization Otpor. Today, 20 years later, Serbia is known in international circles as a country in transition, striving for full membership in the European Union. On this path, the European community requires the introduction of new standards and the manner of state, economic and legal regulation. The chapters that Serbia recently opened are per-accession chapters 23 and 24 that cover basic human rights and freedoms, greater efficiency of the work of […]

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Impediments to conflict resolution in Syria

In the existing realist world today, it is implicitly understood that conflicts, wherever they break out, should at the outset be addressed through domestic state apparatus through political reform, settlements, elections among other methods. When domestic mechanisms fall short, such a scenario calls for action on part of the international community to assist conflicting parties find peaceful means of coming about to an agreement. There are, however, barriers to conflict resolution owing to the forces of motion and relationships between nations and non-state actors. This article explores the broad categories of barriers to conflict resolution, followed by an attempt to […]

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Healing the Wounds: Post-Conflict Mediation in Sudan

Sudan has all the characteristics of an intractable conflict. The roots of the problem run deep into the Sudanese society, heavily influenced by cultural factors, such as religion, ethnicity, ideology, and economics. In this paper, I will describe the major characteristics of this conflict, and use it as a base to suggest and discuss a few recommendations about how an international neutral could go about building bridges among the parties in dispute, especially at the community level. Specifically, I will discuss and comment on Arai’s concept of dialoguing with genuine curiosity, the starting points discussed by LeBaron and Pillay, the […]

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  • Peace and War
  • by Roberto Rodriguez
  • 11. September 2018
  • 1 Comment

Peace Operations in West Africa: ECOWAS Successes and Failures in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau

The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate the ECOWAS peacekeeping efforts in West Africa, specifically its successes and failures in Liberia, Sierrra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea and Guinea Bissau, using a simplified version of the evaluative framework created by Diehl and Druckman, to accommodate for the type of data that is available for these operations. The paper demonstrates that ECOWAS failed to restore peace and security in all its peacekeeping operations and that there is a lot that the sub-regional organization has to learn to deal effectively with its own conflicts. Nigeria provided most of the financial […]

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  • Peace and War
  • by Roberto Rodriguez
  • 11. September 2018
  • 2 Comments

UNAMID and MONUSCO, the Two Most Expensive UN Peacekeeping Operations: How Close Are They to Achieve Their Objectives?

UNAMID and MONUSCO (previously MONUC) have been the two most expensive peacekeeping operations in all UN history. Started in 2007 and 1999 respectively, the mandate of both operations have been repeatedly extended and expanded, but they are still far from achieving all of their objectives. Although the environment in each operation is extremely complex, these operations have manifested weaknesses in the implementation of their respective mandates, including lack of coordination, equipment and training, discipline, priorities and support by the host governments. This paper analyzes in some detail the two most complex UN peacekeeping operations ever launched and investigates the reasons […]

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Facing the term ‘Peace’

Due to the latest development of peace and conflict awareness and sensibility throughout the globe, our initial statement ‚… to promote a culture of peace …‘ might be re-arranged or newly specified. The first WMO Conflict Insight Report and the corresponding discussion helped us to finalize this step. The core problem that was detected in this content is the term ‘peace’ itself that obviously grants too many options for interpretations and generally assumes that all of us believe in the same conception. Advertisement: WMO MINDFUL MEDIATION TRAINING – Learn more today … Nowadays, that we form a more global society […]

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